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More From CouponFollow Access our guides, research, and other resources. Place one two-ply garbage bag over each tree pulling the tree seedling out of the plus sign hole. The fescue is far less of a fire hazard typically remaining shorter and green far into November unlike other grasses. The above system ensures that during each one inch rain the tree will receive about five inches of water due to the two by two foot depression plus the one inch depression in the middle of that. If you insist you do not wish to cultivate the tree zone befor planting then I suggest you skip step one but instead do step ii to x.
This means that in step ii you will spade out the sod which will create a two foot by two foot hollow four inches deep. We have planted two million trees on contract using both the mechanized system and also the manual system. Am not saying these are the only successful systems but you must either commit to constant cultivation around the trees for five year OR use a plastic or similar method to stop soil moisture evaporation and hold back weed and aggressive grass competition as I have described above.
Weeds and aggressive grasses need to be held back a minimum of twelve inches on every side of the tree at a bare minimum if trees are to survive establishment and grow at their rated potential. Then planting one tree in the bottom of each digging out another gallon size hole at the bottom of the desodded area Then cut a two inch x two inch plus sign in the middle of a black plastic garbage bag and lay over each planted tree pulling each tree out through the plus sign. Bury the outside one inch of the plastic with soil on the outside bottom of the two foot by two foot de-sodded depression.
Lastly place a fist size stone against each tree seedling on top the plastic over the plus sign For shelterbelt purposes, we have followed the federal government's Shelterbelt Center recommended distances for hybrid poplar or 2. We strongly recommend not less than four meters between tree rows.
The four meter rule is from our own experience of contract tree planting. The four meters between the most standard three to four shelterbelt rows provides space for the blowing snow to be stored. If the rows are too close then the snow makes a quick snow bank and then continues to blow inward to the next obstacle being your cars, house and other buildings.
Distance between White Spruce similar for all evergreens is government recommended at 3 meters that is, ten feet Some folks plant at 2 meters or 2. Then, at ten or fifteen years of age every second tree can be tree spaded out and used for spot landscaping or other purposes since, at that age, spruce are a very high value tree!
The minimum number of rows for new shelterbelts if you do not have forestation or tree belts in the near vacinity is three rows of trees for minimum wind and drifting snow protection of your property. The ideal row spacing for most trees space between tree rows is 4 meters. Its a sort of magic number. At four meters most trees except for large willow varieties which require 5 meters will tend not to interfere with each other by branches touching each other that causes spontaneous pruning one the sides that are touching etc which you do not want.
Four meters is also the maximum distance in which the land in between will eventually remain moist year round due to the ecosphere created by the tree canopies. Farther than 4 meters apart and sometimes the landspace in the middle between tree rows can become drought prone.
On an average snow fall winter, the snow accumulation is a eight to 12 foot high bank within the tree rows and 15 meters of snow tapering inside the property from the tree lines and 15 meters tapering from the tree lines to the outside of the property. If you leave less than four meters of space between tree rows the snow can blow over the tree line and onward into the property to be stopped by buildings and vehicles etc.
U do the planting? When could this be done? Of our willows I would highly recommend the Golden Willow as a fast growing tree that is quite hardy, fast growing. It grows to 25 to 40 feet tall and 25 to 30 feet wide in canopy typically. We are open for fall shelterbelt planting tree orders now which includes a full range of willow, several hybrid poplars, plus some Green Ash and Red Ozier Dogwood.
Fall planting is recommended for the period October 1st through 21st any time prior to ground freezing. For Spring planting season we will be posting trees for sale on October 1st or earlier for on line purchase or downloadable tree order form. We will be carrying out press releases, and email notification at that time to all R.
Tree Shipping Because of the cancellation of bus services in Saskatchewan and the higher cost and longer shipping time by commercial trucking firms HELP is opting to carry out one major delivery to ten major and thirty or more minor locations across Saskatchewan in late April or very early May where customers can come and fetch their trees. HELP will provide 50 trees of choice free of charge to sponsors at major pick up points and 25 free trees to pick up location sponsors at minor pick up locations. Major centers might have fifteen to twenty tree orders whereas minor centers might have three to ten orders.
Any entity who wishes to be considered as a pick up location sponsor should contact HELP International at helpint sasktel. We are completely open to the north and would like to plant some trees to block the wind and add some privacy.. Without measuring i would guess we would need enough trees for about meters. What would you recommend in this situation?
If you are wide open then folks typically put three to five rows. Acreages most typically put three rows. Some folks put two shrub willow then a fast growing hybrid poplar like Okanese and then two more shrub willow to create multi story wind protection on that outside row. Rational for Middle Row: Walker poplar is only hybrid poplar with wide branches right against the ground so will be a second row barrier against ground winds and drifting snow.
Walker is very fast growing equal to that of the fast growing Okanese poplar. Golden willow grows to be 25 to 30 ft tall and almost the same width of canopy so for mid story wind protection the golden willow does a great job do to its immense density of canopy. The spruce takes far longer to grow compared to willows and poplars but is longer lived and once it does mature in 15 to 20 years creates a very superior wind break and privacy shield due to its high density.
Land Prep Fine till six inches deep Ensure all existing grasses and especially alfalfa is GONE from the site permanently befor tree planting. This seals the tree Then stick your forefinger in the tiny hole and pull the tree out Plastic mulching is not recommended except by a very experienced person s. Plant the entire area between tree rows by broadcasting the seed at 50 lb per acre and harrow twice and pack. Mow the weeds till the grass forms a perfect sod. This grass is least fire hazard, remaining green into November and is least competitive with the trees. If you use the above grassing option you must still rototill around the tree seedlings for the first five years befor allowing the fescue to grow up to the base of the trees.
A half inch line running on top of your tree line can be very helpful. Do not water every day but perhaps only for a couple hours once per week to ten days when it has not rained So unless you have lots of water to waste, water using a method that target flows the water exactly to each tree rather than soaking the entire area along the tree line. Can this just be seeded in the tree line or does it have to be used with the plastic down first and soil over the plastic, then seed.
We tried this in experiment and it slows down tree growth rate to a snail pace. I have planted the fescue first and then plastic mulched but I believe this is a loss of seed. If you are not planting brush such as the drought resistant cariganna to stop ground winds and drifting snow on the outside row, I highly recommend you plant walker poplar on the outside row or on both rows if your principal aim is wind and snow stopping.
The Okanese is a more upright slighter frame walker and clean on the bottom couple of feet of trunk unlike the Walker. Both the Okanese and Walker are the fastest growing of the hybrid poplars and can reach over a meter per year in growth if they have adequate moisture.
For valley top planting I recommend two things: iii The most hardy tree for droughted landscapes is the green ash. However it is slow growing at one foot per year or up to 1. This helps the roots reach and enter the clay sub-soils to access more semi permanent moisture.
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This guarentees the tree soil is packed and leaves a small cavity for rainfall to gather at base of each tree. I would put the soaker hose on for a few hours if it has not rained for about ten days during the mid May to end August period. Constant watering can make the roots lazy and reliant on long term irrigation. Question : Can I lay plastic irrigation pipe along my tree row before machine laying plastic mulch film.
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You can definately plant the trees, then lay the hose one inch away from each tree in the tree line. A larger hose can hold up the plastic like a stone would do for example. If the plastic is held up then when any deer walks on it they can pepper the plastic full of foot holes rendering the plastic fairly useless.
So its important the pipe allows the plastic mulch to lay as flat against the ground as possible. BTW, the reason you keep the hose an inch away from the trees is that the trees, especially when small will not push the hose away as the trunk grows. Instead the tree trunk will grow around the hose, which is held down by the plastic. You can correct me where I am wrong! For now, I will assume that the purpose is for iii 'a' and 'b' above and that you have 50 or so meters of open land that you control on each side of the trail.
Typical property shelterbelts require minimum three rows of trees on the perameter of the property with rows 4 meters apart. This means the space between the three tree rows is 8 meters. In your case, your 'property' can be defined as the trail and some meters of land directly adjacent.
Shelterbelt rows are typically planted minimum 4 meters apart for the purpose of providing sufficient space between tree rows to store the trapped snow. Otherwise the snow will create a quick bank and then blow over and into your property ie: onto the trail. The snow dome created by shelterbelts will start 15 meters outside the tree rows then crescendo to a maximum height within the tree rows and then taper off for 15 meters into your property i.
This means that your nearest tree row to your trail should be minimum 15 meters back from the trail So if your budget is limited then you should concentrate most of your protection from North west winds ie: you should plant more rows on the north and west side of your trail and fewer if necessary on the south and east side of the trail. By adding an upright poplar like Assiniboine after every two cluster shrub willow you are getting high wind protection in the same row that is stopping your ground winds at no extra cost.
Other brush such as carigana or lilac take up to three to four times longer to establish ie: two to three meter high outside row hedge compared to the willow. Golden Willow for Middle Row Golden Willow needs some moisture as do cluster shrub willow but HELP's willows are produced with exceptionally long roots five inches of root with soil plus another two to six inches of additional root.
If you plant the willows as deep as the roots are long The spruce provides your long term trail protection strategy. Though far slower growing than the willows that can easily grow a meter a year if moisture is present, the spruce will eventually add that third row for year round protection from the elements.
The above design provides you with by far the quickest shelterbelt protection and long term protection. Because we are quite exposed to the elements, I hope to plant a hedge around the front south , and possibly the west, sides of our property. We are looking for something that provides some wind shelter for wildlife also, particularly the birds that winter here. As well as something that is a fast grower. Trees planted for strictly ornamental purposes don't qualify.
In your case you qualify so you can go ahead and order trees from us. If your space limits the number of rows you can plant, you might consider planting both woody species trees with trunks interspersed with brush like Cariganna or lilac in between. On the outside I might put hybrid poplars three meters apart with three Carigana in between.
If you only want to sacrifice room for a single row then I'd put poplar and Cariganna in the same row as I explained above. If you want bird habitat then you might want to put lilac which robins like to nest in or hawthorn that many small birds like to nest in as the thorns keep predators including predator birds away. If you wanted you could also plant four or five lilac or hawthorn by themselves for the birds Question: Is lilac too shade to plant in a north outside row of my shelterbelt and interspersed with green ash in the same row alternating two lilac and a green ash and then two lilac again?
I would not be concerned with placing lilacs on the north side outside row. If you were concerned, just make sure you leave four to five meters instead of 2. Interspersing one green ash for every two to three lilacs is something I recommend in the interests of disease control, bio-diversity and for stopping multi story wind and snow.
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Sea Buckthorn does best planted in full sun. In a shelterbelt planting the Sea Buckthorn does best as the outside row and especially well planted as the outside south facing row. In this ideal setting Sea Buchthorn does what its famous for which is profusely suckering and spreading and creating a lot of berries and habitat for game birds. Last summer and again this spring, there is yellowing of leaves and then loss of leaves that seems to be spreading within the tree row. I have not applied any chemical yet however was going to spray Malathion on affected trees and ones beside yellowing trees.
You recognize them by their small four to five inch diameter web with one single spider you can hardly see in the middle of each small web. They work their way slowly one limb at a time. You see the leaves dry up on a part of each stem at a time till the entire stem dies. Then the spider mite moves onto another stem. So you usually have lots of time to deal with the problem on larger trees before all the limbs die. We spray with liquid malathaine. So one gallon lasts a lifetime of treating tree lines! In a minority of instances a few people have bore beetles on their poplars These can also be sprayed to get rid of using malathaine as the least expensive pesticide that is somewhat safer to use.
Safety: Always stand upwind when you are spraying and begin in the downwind side of your tree grove so you don't have to walk through the sprayed trees while spraying. Preferably wear rain gear that is impervious to liquid or washable kitchen gloves, long sleaved shirt and long trousers that should be washed even if you are only in fairly close proximity with the spray or spray drift.
Wash and Shower after applying spray even if you hav e not had noticable contact with this or any pesticide spray They will tend to have two to four 'feeders' near the surface going to different mostly lateral directions compared to tap root trees that go more straight down like a green ash for example. Do NOT try to transplant a poplar when in full green leaf! If the last foot or so of root breaks off I would not worry. How to Disguise a six foot fence with trees. Depends if you are in a city or farm environment to some extent.
Lilac maxes out at about three meters of height whereas carigana and chokecherry can grow to be four to five meters in height eventually. Carigana and lilac can be cut back to the ground and quickly regrow if they get too high or broken by snow pack in a bad winter.
Though the standard spacing if one meter when planting most brush species, you might wish to plant at 1. It is a unique poplar by shape This tree, that will grow from a seedling at about 1 meter per year This is NOT a brush plant however. Walker poplars should be planted no closer than 2. This will give you the benefit of the very fast growing poplar while the brush plants have time to grow up in between the poplar.
This third option is the newest innovation that has been taking place in shelterbelts ie. Tree rows should be 2. Trees planted too closely to a fence line can cause a snow pack over the fence in some winter dynamics that can pull the barbed wire off of a barbed wire fence for example. Subject: Tree Fertilizers. Tree needs are far different from vegetables for example. Some of the best forests in the world are on very degraded soils. Subject: Tree Pest Problem. Q Poplar tree pest problem. The most common thing affecting poplars the last three of four years is the introduction of the spider mite to the prairies from the U.
The spider mite affects many tree species in the spring but early rains? But they persist on the poplar For larger issues of spider mite One recognizes the spider mite by a four inch by four inch tiny web with one single spider you can hardly see in the middle of each web. They suck the sap out of each leaf one at a time and if not treated When it does this to all branches then the entire tree finally can die.
But this takes quite some time We have not tried organic solutions which there may be many such as sprinking wood ash and other non toxic household products on seedlings which may inhibit the insect but quick eradication may be best done by commerical chemical treatment. In a minority of cases of poplar problems This can be noticed by looking for horizontal bore holes through the bark Again there are Canadian Tire products showing beetles on that some folks tell me was effective.
This is all I have to opinionate on the matter. All the best at diagnosing and treating the problem and please let me know the outcome. But if chewed off to the ground level the trees can come back as a stool of three or four trunks instead of one. The only remedy I found that is effective is I put empty toilet tissue rolls around the bottom of trees at the only site out of more than we did that had intense rabbit populations Sask Power station at Coronach and another time at our City Farm Property.
If the rabbits or deer chew the tree all the way to the bottom four inches Furthermore, the leader will come back more than one meter in the next year because it has a big root by then and little to feed on top. This was our own research and innovation. We collect thousands of empty toilet tissue rolls for this purpose. Other folks could cut short 9 to twelve inches of weeping tile that can be cut off later when the tree trunk grows to the size of the weeping tile.
These can be introduced to surrounding trees at any wound sites. Once the disease occurs, then all kinds of other wood decay fungus can get in there as well. The prescription is to remove the affected trees, unfortunately. Young evergreens took a terrible beating this winter especially those that did not receive any snow cover. They basically got very bed wind burn is how I assess it.
Even two and three year old plantings which had almost no snow this winter have that red winter burn Evergreens more than other trees can be assisted going into the winter by a good watering just before freeze up at the end of October. This does not stop wind burning but can give better chance of recovery in the spring. Subject: Post Hole Plantings. Post hole plantings are not the easiest to establish trees and often fails.
Bevel the top of the hole six to twelve inches back in each direction so that the tree gets three times or more the rainfall moisture as anything in the area. Burry the outside edges of the plastic. Place a small stone in the center of the plastic to hold it down next to the tree. This will ensure the grass dies under the plastic and greatly reduces moisture evaporation. Be careful if the holes were dug deep though as excess water can bring the salts up Do not add peat moss or other aerating material or it can cause dehydration of your tree seedlings in the post hole.
Plant into the same soil that is in the top eight to ten inches of the post hole. If top leaves are yellowing this is a sign of drought stress and please water at that time if you see those signs befor September. Silver leaf willow is considered by some to require slightly more maintenance for some reason. Poplars are being affected by spider mites the past number of years but any spray with a spider on it in Canadian Tire takes care of them quickly If you see leaves drying on a single branch at a time and you see a tiny four inch diameter web with a very tiny spider in the middle of each web this is spider mite.
Longevity Though the government rated the hybrid poplars at 15 to 45 years, I am seeing most in my lieftime living past 50 years and still going strong. Ones that live less might well be weakened by things such as field chemical or severe flooding for several months The willows are considered a bit longer lived than the hybrid poplar at 60 to 70 years.
If on the other hand you can get hybrid poplar or willow such as we have established just off the saline zone these are real high water users and will serve to lower the surface water table. This in turn will allow the rain to leach the minerals and salts back down in the soil profile where they originated from making your soil surface salt free overtime. I am guessing that the perennial flooding of your land has caused the underground salts to come to the surface. You would notice this to be true if you see whitish coloration on the top of the soil. Other indicators are the presence of foxtail and possibly very healthy coshia weed.
These are all indicators of salinity i. Alfalfa has long roots and will work to lower the underground water table so the rain can leach the salts back down to their place in the deeper strata. Other grasses and trees will perform the same function or in unison with the alfalfa. However make sure you keep the alfalfa back at least five meters from the tree line as alfalfa can rob moisture from trees on a dry year.
HELP has been the leader in Canada in testing tree species that have the best chance to establish in saline soils. The trees and shrubs that we found do establish best in saline soils at least in Saskatchewan include: Green Ash, Arnold Hawthorn, and Red Ozier Dogwood.
Maple establish quite well but grow very slowly in saline soils. One surviving willow will do more to reverse salinity than ten other of the trees I have mentioned. We at HELP have reversed severe and spreading soil salinity to no noticable signs of salinity in as little as seven years using the above strategies. I would suggest that once the trees are planted to plant a shallow root grass such as creeping red fescue between the tree rows and STOP all cultivation.
Cultivation is what causing the spread of soil salinity. This method can put in one tree per three seconds at the standard eight foot spacing In the above method you would then have the option to lay 48 inch wide plastic mulch film over the trees and pull the trees out through the holes that are cut as the machine lays the plastic mulch. This is the lowest maintenance method of tree care because you will not have to cultivate nor weed and rarely water the trees as the plastic mulch inhibits evaporation of water, and keeps weeds and grass away from the new seedlings.
Then spade a hole for the seedling of one gallon size. Place a seedling in the hole do NOT add any nursery soils Bury the the entire five inch plug plus two inches up the stem of the poplar or willow seedling. Leave a four inch deep depression in a 12 inch diameter around the tree. Then leave a two inch depression for an area just over four foot square around the tree Then place a two foot x two foot mulch pad over each seedling You can make this pad from a double heavy duty black garbage bag OR best is a two foot x two foot piece of plastic from a recycled grain bag Once placed over each tree, then bury the four edges of the plastic pad that you have laid in the two inch depression with an inch of soil Then next to the seedling place a fist sized field stone.
The stone will push the plastic down next to the tree into the deeper tree depression. When it rains on the four foot square plastic pad depression around the tree, the water does not run off but will remain in the depression and in fact be pulled down into the tree hole aided by the stone that is holding the plastic down in the middle next to the tree seedling. I would give the same advice for evergreen planting. The combination depression planting and using a home made or purchased mulch pad In this case you may want to plant high water use trees like willow and poplar a few feet or meters outside the saline zone.
These high water use trees serve to lower the surface water table after which the rain leaches the salt back down where it came from. Container root trees which is all that HELP produces can be kept for days or even weeks in this condition. They can establish as easily while dormant or when in full leaf.
You should sink up to your ankles when walking on it. If you want to order from HELP The idea is to enhance the chance of waste water and nutrient uptake by grasses, forbs, brush and trees so that the chance of downward percolation of water, nutrients and bacteria is minimized. Planting of these plants to assist in nutrient and water uptake using official recommended installation norms is considered by HELP to be a leading edge best environmentally friendly practice.
Because official recommendations vary from one province or state or country to another, HELP can only provide its general opinion and suggest that you consult your local authorities for the local standard. Below are guidelines set out by University of Minnesota. I find that many of the states in the USA have standards that may be superior to those in some of our provinces in Canada. Note the area I have highlighted in yellow below. I suggest you might go on line and google 'Planting Trees Sewer Mounds' for many more references.
Despite all that is said below I would offer additional advice. Planting high water use trees such as poplars and willows significantly back from the mounds and pump-outs as per government recommendations such as the advice below, can use up an immense amount of water and metabolize an immense amount of nutrients thereby lowering the surface water level and keeping salinity at bay and reversing soil salinity in areas adjacent to the actual tree planting. Maples are a far smaller water user than poplar and willow but any woody tree will assist to some degree though some might suggest that ten or twenty willow or hybrid poplar can take up as much water as 50 to maple.
Evergreens such as pine and spruce have far shallower and far less extensive root system than deciduous woody species trees. Therefor these coniferous trees should be able to be safely planted closer to the mound than would be permissible for willow, poplar and maple for example.
It should be noted however that if salinity is already a problem and salinity reversal is your objective then you would not wish to plant spruce or pine as these species are not saline tolerant. If you have profound salinity already in evidence by prolific amount of white top soil then the trees that are most tolerant for establishing directly into saline soils at the proper recommended distance for deciduous woody species are Green Ash, Russian Olive as well as the semi-brush Arnold Hawthorn or the brush Red Ozier Dogwood. Chokecherry sometimes also does well on some types of saline sites.
Semi brush and brush plants as per recommendation can be planted closer to sewer mounds and pump-outs than the larger wood species such as poplar, willow and maple which should be planted at the greater distance such as that recommended below if you lived in Minnesota. Hope this gives you some guidance. A permanent vegetation cover is required to minimize topsoil loss.
Open sites are more susceptible to frost, heaving and erosion. Plants trap snow which acts as a mulch and prevents erosion. Topsoil on the mound should be a minimum of 6 inches and a maximum of 16 inches. Do not till when planting. Establish a cover as soon as possible to limit erosion. Always wear gloves when working over septic systems to minimize your contact with soil.